French law makes allowances for the vast differences in commune size in a number of areas of administrative law. Today about 90 percent of communes and departments are exactly the same as those designed at the time of the French Revolution more than 200 years ago, with the same limits. there was no uniform status for these chartered cities, each one having its own status and specific organization. Except for these tasks, villages were left to handle other issues as they pleased. In areas where languages other than French are or were spoken, most place-names have been translated into a French spelling and pronunciation, such as Dunkerque (formerly Duinkerke in Dutch), Toulouse (formerly Tolosa in Occitan), Strasbourg (formerly Straßburg in German), Perpignan (formerly Perpinyà in Catalan), and many place names derived from Gaulish or Latin. The municipal council is the legislative and deliberative organ of the commune. . In metropolitan France 57 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants and, with 4,638,000 inhabitants, these smaller communes constitute just 7.7 percent of the total population. Therefore, when they created the communes, they deprived them of any legal "personality" (as they did with the départements), with only the central state having legal "personality." In exchange for the creation of a community, the government allocates money to them based on their population, thus providing an incentive for communes to team up and form communities. Un an plus tard : 1 852 panneaux agrémentaient déjà le blog, plus de 30 personnes avaient adhéré à l’idée et contribuaient régulièrement à enrichir ce blog participatif. The communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. The municipal arrondissement is the only administrative unit below the commune in the French Republic, but existing only in these three communes. Usually, there was no mayor in the modern sense; all the échevins or consuls were on equal footing, and rendered decisions collegially. Consequently, the Alsace region—despite having a land area only one-fifth the size and a total population only one-sixth of that of its neighbor Baden-Württemberg—has almost as many municipalities. Située dans les Hauts-de-France, dans le département de l’Aisne (02), Saint-Quentin est une commune de 54 000 habitants. This was a real revolution for the thousands of villages that never had experienced organized municipal life before. Some say that, should government money transfers be stopped, many of these communities of communes would revert to their former status of syndicate, or simply completely disappear in places where there were no syndicates prior to the law. From 1794 to 1977—except for a few months in 1848 and 1870-1871—Paris had no mayor and was thus directly controlled by the departmental prefect. 50 parishes in the case of Paris), and they were usually enclosed by a defensive wall. This is much more than in any other European country. The new, larger, commune of Paris was set up under the oversight of Emperor Napoléon III in 1859, but after 1859 the limits of Paris rigidified. Poullan-sur-Mer est une petite commune du nord-ouest de la France, située dans le département du Finistère et de la région Bretagne. This meant that Paris had less autonomy than the smallest village. This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. REVENIR EN 2D Attention, le navigateur que vous utilisez ne permet pas une navigation fluide en 3D. However, in many places local feuds have arisen, and it was not possible to set up an intercommunal structure for the whole of the urban area: some communes refusing to take part in it, or even creating their own structure. unesdoc.unesco.org Mention is made of a hut financed by the International Association for … Mairies de France.org est un site privé indépendant de l'administration française. Thus, in Europe, only Switzerland has as high a density of communes as France, and even there an extensive merger movement has started in the last 10 years. , These impressive results however may hide a murkier reality. Par exemple, les enregistrements avec comme valeur "2018" dans le champ Année correspondent aux communes françaises existantes au 1er Janvier 2018. Alsace, with an area of 8,280 km2 (3,200 sq mi), and now part of the Région Grand Est, used to be the smallest of the regions of metropolitan France, and still has no fewer than 904 communes. Today, French communes are still very much the same in their general principles as those that were established at the beginning of the Revolution. The Chevènement law tidied up all these practices, abolishing some structures and creating new ones. European France excluding, The commune of the French Republic with the shortest name is the commune of. In many places, the local feudal lord (seigneur) still had a major influence in the village's affairs, collecting taxes from tenant-villagers and ordering them to work the corvée, controlling which fields were to be used and when, and how much of the harvest should be given to him. France was the most populous country in Europe at this time, with a population of approximately 25 million inhabitants in the late 18th century (England in contrast had only 6 million inhabitants), which accounts for the large number of parishes. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes ("lieu dit" or "bourg"), the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers. The complete code has eight digits and three spaces within, but there is a popular simplified code with five digits and no space within: Each commune has a municipal council (conseil municipal) compound of municipal councilors (conseillers municipaux).  "Commune" in English has a historical bias, and implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history (after the rising of the Paris Commune, 1871, which could have more felicitously been called, in English, "the rising of the City of Paris"). Although in the Middle Ages the provosts of the merchants symbolized the independence of Paris and even had openly rebelled against King Charles V, their office had been suppressed by the king, then reinstated but with strict control from the king, and so they had ended up being viewed by the people as yet another representative of the king, no longer the embodiment of a free municipality. French communes were created at the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789–1790. Alsace has more than double the total number of municipalities of the Netherlands which, in spite of having a population nine times larger and a land area four times larger than Alsace, is divided into just 390 municipalities (gemeenten). With its 904 communes, Alsace has three times as many municipalities as Sweden, which has a much larger territory covering 449,964 km2 (173,732 sq mi) and yet is divided into only 290 municipalities (kommuner). There is nothing intrinsically different between "town" in English and commune in French. The expression "intercommunality" (intercommunalité) denotes several forms of cooperation between communes. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas. In the state of Baden-Württemberg, the number of Gemeinden or communities was reduced from 3,378 in 1968 to 1,108 in September 2007. Boulogne-Billancourt. Quelles villes de France possèdent le plus grand nombre d'habitants ? Communes de France Recherchez une ville par département : 01 Ain; 02 Aisne; 03 Allier; 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence; 05 Hautes-Alpes; 06 Alpes-Maritimes A commune is the smallest and oldest administrative division in France. Découvrez les communes de France. However, many smaller communes have retained their native name. This is because the suburban communes refused an urban community for fear of losing too much power, and opted for a community of agglomeration, despite the fact that a community of agglomeration receives less government funds than an urban community. gps.over-blog.com a vu le jour à la suite d’un pari un peu farfelu : photographier les panneaux d’entrée de toutes les communes de France. Those without fiscal power, the loosest form of intercommunality. The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. This is still the case today. Very good relations with Socialist Republic of Italy and Union of Britain. This is what the Chevènement law was concerned with, and it distinguished three structures with fiscal power: Apart from the above cases, the communes with the fewest inhabitants in the French Republic are: The largest commune of the French Republic is, The smallest commune of the French Republic is, In metropolitan France the largest commune is the commune of, The commune of the French Republic farthest away from Paris is the commune of, In continental France (i.e. La commune est dotée d’un tissu associatif très riche tant dans le domaine sportif, culturel que dans le secteur de l’animation et des loisirs. During the revolution, approximately 41,000 communes were created, on territory corresponding to the limits of modern-day France (the 41,000 figure includes the communes of the departments of Savoie, Haute-Savoie and Alpes-Maritimes which were annexed in 1795, but does not include the departments of modern-day Belgium and Germany west of the Rhine, which were part of France between 1795 and 1815). Civil marriages were established and started to be performed in the mairie with a ceremony not unlike the traditional one, with the mayor replacing the priest, and the name of the law replacing the name of God ("Au nom de la loi, je vous déclare unis par les liens du mariage." These abrupt changes profoundly alienated devout Catholics, and France soon was plunged into the throes of civil war, with the fervently religious regions of western France at its center. Toutes les villes de France ... Cliquez sur une ville pour afficher ses informations. So far, however, local conservatism has been strong, and no mandatory merging proposal ever has made it past committee in the French Parliament. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France. Such cooperation first made its appearance at the end of the 19th century in the form of a law on 22 March 1890, which provided for the establishment of single-purpose intercommunal associations. Declared hostility against the French government in exile, G… Additionally some cities had obtained charters during the Middle Ages, either from the king himself, or from local counts or dukes (such as the city of Toulouse chartered by the counts of Toulouse). This article is about the municipal administrations of France. This small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium (11,265 inhabitants), or even Spain (564 inhabitants). The consequence of the change, however, was that tens of thousands of villages which had never had legal "personality" (contrary to the chartered cities) suddenly became legal entities for the first time in their history. – "In the name of the law, I declare you united by the bonds of marriage."). En France, la commune est, sur le plan institutionnel, à la fois une collectivité territoriale, à savoir une autorité administrative décentralisée bénéficiant de la personnalité morale, et disposant d'affaires propres, distinctes des affaires de l' État, et une circonscription administrative, à savoir une division administrative dépourvue de personnalité juridique, territoire d'exercice d'un service déconcentré de l'administration étatique ou d'un de … Les Mairies et communes de France: Annuaire des mairies et communes de Françaises. The two communes in the French Republic with the longest names (38 letters): Three digits (department or collectivity) and two digits (commune) for the, This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 07:05. Napoleon also abolished the election of the municipal councils, which now were chosen by the prefect, the local representative of the central government. Avec un prix d’achat à 1 130 € du m 2 et un prix moyen des loyers à 8 € du m 2 , Saint-Quentin se positionne en tête du classement des grandes villes les moins chères. Paris in fact was one of the very few communes of France whose limits were extended to take into account the expansion of the urbanized area. Nom de la ville: Code postal: Département: Habitants Les nombres de communes indiqués sont les nombres officiels donnés par l'Insee dans le code officiel géographique au 1er janvier 2020. Unlike most other European countries, which stringently merged their communes to better reflect modern-day densities of population (such as Germany and Italy around 1970), dramatically decreasing the number of communes in the process – the Gemeinden of West Germany were decreased from 24,400 to 8,400 in the space of a few years – France only carried out mergers at the margin, and those were mostly carried out during the 19th century. Ce jeu de données est historisé : la date de validité de chaque enregistrement est indiquée dans le champ "Année". On 14 July 1789, at the end of the afternoon, following the storming of the Bastille, the provost of the merchants of Paris, Jacques de Flesselles, was shot by the crowd on the steps of Paris City Hall. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 22 juin 2020 à 20:07. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or municipio in Spain. Ville de Paris, commune de France de +2 000 000 habitants. Priests were forced to surrender their centuries-old baptism, marriage, and burial books, which were deposited in the mairies. The Jacobin revolutionaries were afraid of independent local powers, which they saw as conservative and opposed to the revolution, and so they favored a powerful central state. From 41,000 communes at the time of the French Revolution, the number decreased to 37,963 in 1921, to 36,569 in 2008 (in metropolitan France). The biggest changes occurred in 1831, when the French Parliament re-established the principle of the election of municipal councils, and in 1837 when French communes were given legal "personality," being now considered legal entities with legal capacity. Quelles sont les communes françaises les plus peuplées ? There have long been calls in France for a massive merger of communes, including by such distinguished voices as the president of the Cour des Comptes (the central auditing administrative body in France).
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